43 Principles in For Vehicles and Fuels In Response to Global Environmental an Health Imperatives.
the principles present here were developed by consensus and represent the collective expert opinion of the individuals participating in the Bellagio meeting; they do not necessarily represent the views of any participant’s organization or government. This list of principles is repeated in following section. With a rationale for each point.
1. Clean vehicles strategies should promote air quality (including air toxics) and greenhouse gases goals in parallel. Noise pollution should be considered as well.
2. Vehicles and fuels should be treated as a system.
3. New vehicle standards for greenhouse gas emissions and conventional pollutants should be fuel-natural.
4. Policies should be base on full life-cycle emissions, including vehicle and fuel production, distribution, and disposal.
5. Cost-effectiveness should be considered in achieving the goals.
6. Economic instruments should be used to promote clean, efficient vehicles and fuels.
7. Policies for clean vehicles should be mutually re-enforcing, non-conflicting. For example, economic policy should be support mandatory standards.
8. Clean transportation strategies should promote inherently clean vehicles.
9. New vehicle industry in developing countries should be based on new technology, not be a dumping ground for old technology.
10. The recommendations in this paper also include vehicles and fuels that are especially important for developing countries (mopeds, tuk-trucks, buses, etc).
11. A truly effective programs will require the active involvement of government at the National, Regional, and Municipal level.
1. Lead should be immediately banned in all fuels.
2. Near-zero sulfur (10 ppm or less) should be introduced in all fuels except residual bunker fuels.
a. Use longer time horizon, stricter targets.
b. Do in one steps, not more.
3. Sulfur content in residual bunker fuel and heavy fuel oil should be significantly reduced worldwide, particularly in sensitive areas.
4. Benzene levels in gasoline should be capped at no more than one percent worldwide. In addition, gasoline aromatic content should be controlled.
5. Compress Natural Gas (CNG), Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG), and other alternative fuels need clear content standards for environmental performance; these standards should be set at the beginning of a fuel’s introduction.
Conventional pollutants and toxics;
1. Emissions standards worldwide should be based on the best available technology.
2. Future new vehicle standards should be fuel-neutral.
3. Vehicles that perform the same fuction should be required to meet the same standards, based on the capability of the leader, not the laggard.
4. Vehicle standards and fuel standards should be linked.
5. Particulate emissions standards should be designed to reduce the number of particles as well as the mass.
Controlling emissions over the lifetime of the vehicles.
6. Test procedures should be reflect real-world operating conditions for all vehicles and engines.
7. Inspection and maintenance programs should be used to control-lifetime in-use vehicle emissions. Programs should separate inspection from repair, and post-inspection diagnostics should preced repair.
8. On-board diagnostic systems that identify failure modes and store.
9. On-board measurement wich real-time logs should be required for all new vehicles.
10. Manufacturers should be responsible for in-use (real-world) emissions in normal use.
11. Regulators should focus on in-use testing of heavy-duty vihicles.
Upgrading the in-use fleet beyond what new vehicle standards and normal turnover can accomplish.
12. Cost-effective retrofit programs should be established for all vehicles
a. Retrofit standards must be matched by appropriate fuel standards (e.g., low-sulfur, no-lead gasoline).
b. Testing must be done to verify efficacy of retrofit programs.
13. Scrap-page and other policies should be used to speed fleet turnover.
1. Measures to reduce greenhouse gas emissions from all vehicles (includeding at least 25 percent average reduction for new personal passenger vehicles over the next decade) should be adopted. Mechanism could include 1) voluntary agreements with manufacturers, 2) fuel efficiency standards, 3) tailpipe greenhouse gas standards, and 4) financial incentives.
2. Reduction measures should be designed to avoid promoting increases in size, weight, or power.
3. Effective strategies should be undertaken to reduce the climate impact of emissions from aviation and freight transportation.
4. Other greenhouse gases should be reduced in concert with CO2 reduction.
1. Government should have strong advaced technology programs that reflect clear sustainable development goals.
2. Programs should be designed to reduce conventional pollutans, greenhouse gases, toxics, and noise together, not one at the expense of the other.
3. These programs must have clear performance targets.
4. Such programs should not be a substitute for taking action in the short-time, but a complement.
5. Evaluation of technologies should consider:
· Life-cycle analysis-including fuel and vehicle production and disposal.
· Real-world performance over the full vehicle lifetime.
· Whatever the technology is inherently clean.
· Potential for maker saturation.
6. As technologies programs from research to development, their potential for commercialization should be emphasized. Safety, quality, and public acceptance are key factors.
7. Both standards and market incentives should be used tocommercialize advanced technologies.
8. Government policies should encourage the introduction of incremental technologies as they are developed.
9. Programs to developed new technologies should be coordinated across jurisdictions to help developed economies of scale.